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Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines

Resource type
Journal Article
Title
Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines
Abstract
<p>Transgenic mice expressing genetically encoded activity indicators are an attractive means of mapping mesoscopic regional functional cortical connectivity given widespread stable and cell-specific expression compatible with chronic recordings. Cortical functional connectivity was evaluated using wide-field imaging in lightly anesthetized <i>Emx1-cre</i>X<i>Rosa26-GCaMP3</i> mice expressing calcium sensor in cortical neurons. Challenges exist because green fluorescence signals overlap with endogenous activity-dependent autofluorescence and are affected by changes in blood volume and oxygenation. Under the conditions used for imaging and analysis (0.1–1 Hz frequency band), autofluorescence and hemodynamic effects contributed 3% and 8% of the SD of spontaneous activity-dependent GCaMP3 fluorescence when signals were recorded through intact bone. To evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of this approach, the topology of functional connections between somatomotor cortex (primary S1 and secondary S2 somatosensory, and primary motor cortex M1) was estimated. During sequences of spontaneous activity, calcium signals recorded at each location of area S1 were correlated with activity in contralateral area S1, ipsilateral area S2, and bilateral areas M1. Reciprocal results were observed when “seed pixels” were placed in S2 and M1. Coactivation of areas implies functional connections but could also be attributed to both regions receiving common upstream drive. These apparent connections revealed during spontaneous activity coactivation by GCaMP3 were confirmed by intracortical microstimulation but were more difficult to detect using intrinsic signals from reflected red light. We anticipate GCAMP wide-field imaging will enable longitudinal studies during plasticity paradigms or after models of CNS disease, such as stroke, where the weighting within these connectivity maps may be altered.</p>
Publication
medRxiv
Pages
2020.07.16.20155747
Date
2020-07-18
Language
en
DOI
10.1101/2020.07.16.20155747
Short Title
Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19
Accessed
2020-08-12T15:37:26Z
Library Catalog
Rights
© 2020, Posted by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. This pre-print is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International), CC BY-NC-ND 4.0, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Extra
Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Citation
Baticulon, R. E., Alberto, N. R. I., Baron, M. B. C., Mabulay, R. E. C., Rizada, L. G. T., Sy, J. J., Tiu, C. J. S., Clarion, C. A., & Reyes, J. C. B. (2020). Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines. MedRxiv, 2020.07.16.20155747. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.16.20155747